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CLAT 2022

CLAT

All About Common Law Admission Test (CLAT)

Law‘ has come up as one of the best career options after Higher Secondary Education, considering the opportunities that it offers. CLAT is the most popular law entrance exam in India.

The emergence of the National Law Universities, their world-class education, and national and international campus placements each year bear testimony to this fact. CLAT is a better option as it saves 1 year of students who do LLB after their Graduation.

Are you guys also fascinated with the law as a career and wondering exactly what you need to do to get admission into those National Law Universities? Let us take you through it-

CLAT stands for “Common Law Admission Test”. It is an all-India entrance examination conducted for admission to Undergraduate (LL.B) and Post-graduate (LL.M) degree programmes offered by 22 National Law Universities (NLUs) in India.

Till 2018, the CLAT exam was conducted by NLUs on a rotational basis. However, from 2019 onwards it is being conducted by a permanent body formed by the universities, i.e. The Consortium of NLUs. The Consortium (commonly known as the CLAT Consortium) has its headquarter at National Law School of India University (NLSIU) Bangalore and comprises:-

  • An Executive Committee
  • The CLAT Convenor of the Last Year
  • The CLAT Convenor of the Following Year 
  • Two Co-opted Vice-Chancellors of NLUs
  • Candidates who want to make their career in the field of law can appear for CLAT after Higher Secondary Examination(12th)  for admission to the integrated under-graduate degree in Law(LL.B) and after graduation, they can appear for post-graduation(LL.M) offered by these law schools.
  • Other private law colleges/universities also use CLAT exam scores to offer admission.
  • Some of the Public Sector Undertakings such as ONGC and BHEL also use CLAT-PG scores for recruitment.

Participating NLUs in the order of their year of establishment are:-

CLAT Consortium

Before the introduction of CLAT, the National Law Universities conducted separate entrance tests which required the candidates to prepare and appear separately for each of these tests. The schedule of the administration of these tests sometimes conflicted with the other major entrance tests such as the Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination and the All India Pre-Medical Test. This caused students to miss tests and experience much stress.

There are 23 National Law Universities in India, the first of which is the National Law School of India University, which admitted its first batch of students in 1987. Out of twenty-three, the National Law University, Delhi conducts its separate entrance test known as the All India Law Entrance Test (AILET).

With the emergence of other law schools, which also conducted their admission tests at around the same time, students faced a hard time preparing for the same. From time to time this issue to conduct a common entrance exam to reduce the burden of the students to give multiple tests was raised, but given the autonomous status of each law school, there was no nodal agency to co-ordinate action in this regard.

The matter drew national attention when a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was filed by Varun Bhagat against the Union of India and various National Law Universities in the Supreme Court of India in 2006. The Chief Justice of India directed the Union of India to consult with the National Law Universities to formulate a common test. The move was strongly supported by the Bar Council of India.

Given the lack of a central nodal authority to bring forth a consensus on the issue, the Ministry of Human Resources Development, (Government of India) and the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India organised a meeting of the Vice-Chancellors of 7 National Law Universities along with the Chairman of the Bar Council of India.

After a few such meetings, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed by the Vice-Chancellors of the seven National Law Universities on 23rd November 2007 to conduct a common admission test. The Common Law Admission Test was to be conducted each year by each of the law colleges and the responsibility of conducting the exam was to be rotated and given based on seniority in the establishment.

However, finally, in 2015 a fresh MoU was signed by the sixteen National Law Universities, except for National Law University, Delhi for the CLAT 2015 being conducted by Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Lucknow whereby all the National Law Universities are now part of the centralized admission process without anyone being left out.

Parameters that candidates need to meet in order to fulfil CLAT eligibility criteria for undergraduate (UG) law courses are mentioned below:-

Educational Qualification

  • Candidates must have passed Class 12th with a minimum 45 percent aggregate (applicable for candidates belonging to General/ Other Backward Class (OBC)/ Person with Disability (PwD)/ Non-Resident Indian (NRI)/ Person of Indian Origin (PIO)/ Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) category).
  • Candidates should clear Class 12 with a minimum 40 percent aggregate (applicable for candidates belonging to Scheduled Caste (SC)/ Scheduled Tribe (ST) category).
  • Candidates appearing for their Class 12 board examinations in March/ April are also eligible to apply for the CLAT exam. However, such candidates need to produce proof of passing the Class 12 or equivalent exam at the time of admission. Candidates unable to produce the evidence shall forfeit their right of admission through CLAT.

CLAT-UG Age Limit

  • There is no upper age limit to appear for the CLAT. This means that candidates belonging to any age group can apply for the law entrance exam. 
  • Age will be an important factor when there will be tie-in marks of two or more candidates.

The Postgraduate (PG) law programme in which candidates can secure admission through CLAT is LLM (Legum Magister/ Master of Law). Basic criteria that candidates need to fulfil in order to meet CLAT eligibility criteria for the LLM course are mentioned below:-

Educational qualification

  • Candidates (belonging to the General/ OBC/ PWD/ NRI/ PIO/ OCI category) should possess an LLB or equivalent degree with a minimum of 50 percent aggregate.
  • Candidates (belonging to SC/ ST category) should possess an LLB or equivalent degree with a minimum of 45 percent aggregate.
  • Candidates appearing for the final year examination of their qualifying degree are also eligible to apply for CLAT.

Age Limit

  • There is no upper age limit to apply for the CLAT PG.
CategoryDetails
Duration2 Hours
Mode of ExamOffline Mode
Type of QuestionMultiple Choice Questions(MCQs)
Number of Questions150 Questions
Language of ExaminationEnglish
Total Marks150
Marking SchemeFor each objective question carry 1 mark each and for every wrong answer, 0.25 marks will be deducted.

CLAT UG – Subject-wise Questions & Weightage

SubjectsNumber of QuestionsPercentage Weightage
English Language28-32 Questions20%
General Knowledge,
including Current Affairs
35-39 Questions25%
Legal Reasoning35-39 Questions25%
Logical Reasoning28-32 Questions20%
Quantitative Techniques13-17 Questions10%
CategoryDetails
Duration2 Hours
Mode of ExamOffline Mode
Type of QuestionMultiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Subjective Questions
Number of Questions100 questions + 2 essays (Subjective Section)
Language of ExaminationEnglish
Total Marks150
Marking SchemeThe evaluation of the essay section will be done manually by the expert team. Candidates who present well-structured and crisp answers may get good marks.

CLAT UG – Subject-wise Questions & Weightage

SubjectsNumber of QuestionsPercentage Weightage
Objective Section100100 Marks
Subjective Sec tion2 Essays- 25 Marks Each50 Marks

The syllabus for CLAT includes five different subjects including English (Comprehension), General Knowledge & Current Affairs, Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability), Legal Aptitude, and Logical Reasoning. The CLAT Syllabus according to the sections is given below:-

English Language: This section will test the candidates’ proficiency in English based on comprehension passages. Students will be given passages of about 450 words each and such passages could be fiction/ non-fiction, contemporary/historical, etc. Candidates will be questioned on their understanding of the passage and its central theme, meanings of words used therein, etc. The inference would be key here, candidates will have to comprehend the main idea discussed in the passage including any counter-arguments used in the passage. This portion has 20% weightage.

Current Affairs including General Knowledge: This section might again consist of passages including direct questions. The passages would again be 450 words each and the same would be derived from news, journals, etc. Questions based on such passages would be asked. Such a question can cover the static portion as well, candidates are therefore advised not to forgo the static portion entirely. Reading Newspapers daily, specifically, articles containing any Bill or Judgments or legal information should help in preparing for this section. This portion has 25% weightage.

Legal Reasoning: This section will test the candidate’s interest in the study of law, research aptitude, and problem-solving ability. Questions would again be based on passages relating to facts or scenarios involving legal matters. The passage would contain certain rules and principles which should be identified and accordingly applied to the questions. The passages would be approximately 450 words each. This portion has 25% weightage.

Logical Reasoning: The purpose of the logical reasoning section is to test the candidate’s ability to identify patterns, logical links, and rectify illogical arguments. The questions would be based on the passage of 300 words. This portion has 20% weightage.

Quantitative Techniques: The Quantitative Technique or Maths section will include short sets of facts or propositions, graphs, or other textual, pictorial, or diagrammatic representations of numerical information, followed by a series of questions. The questions will be in the form of Data Interpretation i.e. candidates would be required to infer information from the given passage and answer accordingly. This portion has 10% weightage.

The Consortium of NLUs determines the category-wise CLAT cut off separately for the 5-year integrated LLB and one-year LLM programme offered by the participating NLUs. The Candidates who meet the CLAT cut-off for a round in the chosen programme and category will be considered for admission; or else they may be disqualified.

Future aspirants should try to score beyond the expected CLAT cut-off to have a fair chance of admission. For determining the cut-off, several factors are considered by CLAT exam officials like the seat intake for the programme, total applications received for admission, and performance of the candidate in the CLAT Exam.

Factors affecting CLAT Cut off

Every year, the cut off marks for the CLAT exam are affected because of the following factors:-

  1. The difficulty level of the exam – If the question paper for all sections is easy then the cut-off is expected to go high and, vice-versa.
  2. Total applications received – If the total applications received is less than the total number of seats available in the 22 NLUs then the cut off is expected to be relaxed, 
  3. Total candidates qualifying CLAT exam If the total-qualifying candidates are less than the total seats then cut off will go low. 
  4. The total number of seats If the total number of seats are revised and are increased then cut-off is expected to remain low. 
  5. Previous year cut-off For tier-1 NLUs, if the cut-off marks in previous years have been high, then only topper candidates could make it for final admissions. Fore tier-2 and tier 3 NLUs, the cut-off marks are relatively low.

Now, these are the key reasons that have affected the CLAT cut-off marks in the past. Whereas, for future CLAT examinations the same factors will play a different role due to change in the exam pattern and marking scheme.

The CLAT form provides the students with a preference list. Each student fills the preference list, according to the colleges he/she desires. Based on these preferences and ranks obtained, students are allocated colleges. As the respective state governments establish the NLUs, therefore most NLUs also have reservations for their domiciled candidates.

Name of the InstituteFee Structure for one year (UG)Fee Structure for one year (PG)
NLSIU, BangaloreGen – Rs. 2,62,000/-
SC/ST – Rs. 2,58,875/-
Gen – 1,89,500/- SC/ST  – 1,86,375/-
NALSAR, HyderabadRs. 2,27,000/-Rs. 1,55,000/-
NLIU, BhopalRs. 2,48,750/-Rs. 2,14,750
NLU, JodhpurRs. 1,44,000/- (1st semester fees)Rs. 1,14,000/- (1st semester fees)
HNLU, RaipurRs. 1,75,000/-Rs. 1,14,000/-
GNLU, GandhinagarRs. 2,37,000/-Rs. 2,07,000/-
RMNLU, LucknowRs. 1,53,000/-Rs. 1,13,000/-
RGNUL, PunjabRs. 2,11,000/-Rs. 1,65,000/-
CNLU, PatnaRs. 2,06,000/-Doesn’t offer LLM
NUALS, KochiRs. 2,07,000/-Rs. 1,48,000/-
NLUO, CuttackRs. 2,11,000/-Rs. 1,61,000/-
NUSRL, RanchiRs. 2,27,000/-Rs. 2,03,000/-
NLUJA, AssamRs. 2,19,000/-Rs. 1,89,000/-
DSNLU, VisakhapatnamRs. 2,00,000/-Rs. 1,80,000
TNNLU, TiruchirappalliRs. 2,23,000/-Rs. 1,74,000/-
MNLU, MumbaiRs. 2,92,000/-
Maharashtra Domicile – Rs. 2,60,000/-
Rs. 2,26,000/-
Maharashtra Domicile – Rs. 1,82,000/-
MNLU, NagpurRs. 2,47,000/-
Maharashtra Domicile – Rs. 2,20,750/-
Rs. 1,54,250/-
Maharashtra Domicile – Rs. 1,73,000/-
MNLU, AurangabadRs. 2,57,955/-
Domicile – Rs. 2,23,017/-
Doesn’t offer LLM
HPNLU, ShimlaRs. 2,20,500/-Rs. 1,71,500
DNLU, JabalpurRs. 2,60,000Doesn’t offer LLM
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar NLU, Sonipat, HaryanaRs. 2,02,000/-Doesn’t offer LLM
Name of the InstituteNumber of seats offeredState Quota DomicileSeats are available for all Indian candidates
NLSIU, Bangalore12025%90
NALSAR, Hyderabad12020%96
WBNUJS, Kolkata10536%67
NLIU, Bhopal10250%51
NLU, Jodhpur104N/A104
HNLU, Raipur16050%80
GNLU, Gandhinagar17425%130
RMNLU, Lucknow16952%81
RGNUL, Punjab17510%157
CNLU, Patna12066%54
NUALS, Kochi6049%29
NLUO, Cuttack15925%119
NUSRL, Ranchi12050%60
NLUJA, Assam6048%31
DSNLU, Visakhapatnam12055%54
TNNLU, Tiruchirappalli11450%57
MNLU, Mumbai10063%37
MNLU, Nagpur12062%45
MNLU, Aurangabad6062%23
HPNLU, Shimla12025%90
DNLU, Jabalpur12050%60
Dr B.R. Ambedkar NLU, Sonipat, Haryana12025%90
Name of the InstituteNumber of seats offered
NLSIU, Bangalore50
NALSAR, Hyderabad60
WBNUJS, Kolkata42
NLIU, Bhopal60
NLU, Jodhpur50
HNLU, Raipur60
GNLU, Gandhinagar60
RMNLU, Lucknow24 + 7(supernumerary seats)
RGNUL, Punjab40
NUALS, Kochi60
NLUO, Cuttack50
NUSRL, Ranchi50 + 10(special category seats)
NLUJA, Assam30
DSNLU, Visakhapatnam27
TNNLU, Tiruchirappalli18
MNLU, Mumbai50
MNLU, Nagpur20
MNLU, Aurangabad20
HPNLU, Shimla40
ENGLISH1. English is Easy by Chetananand Singh,
2. Barron’s Pocket Guide to Vocabulary,
3. Comprehension Questions, and
4. 10 previous years CLAT English section
CURRENT AFFAIRSFollow a national newspaper regularly or monthly magazines.
LEGAL REASONINGLegal Aptitude Workbook by AP Bharadwaj
LOGICAL REASONING1. Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning by RS Aggarwal or
2. Analytical Reasoning by MK Pandey or
3. GMAT Guide GMB by Legal Edge
QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES1. Quantitative Aptitude by RS Aggarwal

The scope of CLAT isn’t merely limited to admission in NLUs, rather its score/ merit is widely accepted by an array of educational institutions in the present time. Though there are a large number of colleges that take admissions on the basis of CLAT scores not all of them are really worth it. Hence, we are providing you with a small list of good colleges which are worth going to, which are mentioned hereinafter: –

  1. Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University (GGSIPU) is a State-run university by the Government of Delhi. It has 13 colleges which accept the CLAT score for their admission process.
  2. VIT Law School, Chennai
  3. ICFAI Law School, Hyderabad
  4. IMS Law College, Noida
  5. UPES, Dehradun
  6. Bennett University, Greater Noida
  7. Indore Institute of Law, Indore
  8. NMIMS.